Tissue culture, also known as micropropagation, is a laboratory technique used to grow and propagate plants from small tissue samples. It involves the use of specialized equipment and procedures to create a sterile, controlled environment in which plant cells can be grown and multiplied.
Tissue culture is commonly used to propagate a wide range of plants, including annuals, perennials, trees, and shrubs. It is often used to produce plants that are true-to-type, meaning that they are genetically identical to the parent plant. This can be especially useful for producing plants with specific traits or characteristics, such as disease resistance or variegation.
To perform tissue culture, small tissue samples are taken from the parent plant and placed on a nutrient-rich medium, such as agar or gel, in a sterile container. The tissue samples are then placed in a growth chamber or incubator that provides the appropriate temperature, light, and humidity conditions for the plants to grow and multiply.
Tissue culture can be a complex and time-consuming process, but it offers several advantages, including the ability to produce a large number of plants in a short amount of time and the ability to propagate plants that are difficult to grow or propagate using traditional methods. It is also a useful tool for preserving rare or endangered plant species, as it allows for the production of plants without the need to collect additional specimens from the wild.